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dtksh(1)

CDE

NAME

dtksh - shell command language interpreter with access to many X, Xt, Xm and CDE functions

SYNOPSIS

dtksh [-abCefimnuvx] [-o option] [+abCefmnuvx] [+o option] command_string [command_name [argument...]]

DESCRIPTION

The dtksh utility is a version of the KornShell extended to support: · Access to many X, Xt and Motif facilities from within a shell script · Fully localized shell scripts · Access to the CDE application help system · Customization of script-based GUI attributes (such as font and colors) using the CDE customization tool · Response to session-management "Save state" directives · Response to window-management Close directives · Access to most of the CDE Desktop Services Message Set · Access to many of the CDE Data Typing API functions · Access to the CDE Action API functions The dtksh utility uses the ksh93 implementation of the Korn shell libraries.

OPTIONS

See ksh93(1CDE).

OPERANDS

See ksh93(1CDE).

RESOURCES

The dtksh interpreter has no relevant resources outside of those that affect the various widgets that can be instantiated from within a dtksh script. Refer to the manual page of the relevant widget for information on the resources that apply to that widget.

STDIN

See ksh93(1CDE).

INPUT FILES

See ksh93(1CDE).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

The following information describes the environment variables that dtksh uses that are in addition to those documented in the manual page for the ksh command language interpreter. Immediate Return Value (-) Many of the category 3 commands (as described in the "Return Values From Built-in Commands" section) return a single value using an environment variable specified as the first argument to the command (in the synopses for these special commands, the first argument has the name variable). If this return value is immediately used in an expression, the special environment variable ``-'' can be used in place of a variable name. When dtksh encounters ``-'' as the name of the environment variable in which the return value is to be returned, it returns the result as the value of the command. This allows the shell script to embed the command call in another command call. (This feature works only for commands that return a single value; the value is the first argument and the argument has the name variable). For example: XtDisplay DISPLAY $FORM XSync $DISPLAY true can be replaced by the equivalent: XSync $(XtDisplay "-" $FORM) true The reference to $DISPLAY is replaced with the value returned by the call to XtDisplay. This capability is available for all category 3 commands except those that create a widget, those that return more than a single value and those whose first argument is not named variable. Commands that do not accept ``-'' as the environment variable name include: XtInitialize, XtCreateApplicationShell, XtCreatePopupShell, XtCreateManagedWidget and XtCreateWidget; all commands of the form: XmCreate...() and most commands of the form: tt_...() Variables Set By XtInitialize The XtInitialize command sets the following variables: DTKSH_APPNAME DTKSH_ARGV DTKSH_TOPLEVEL Callback Context Variables An application registers a callback with a widget to specify which condition it is interested in, and what action should occur when that condition occurs. The action can be any arbitrary dtksh command line. For example: XtAddCallback $WIDGET activateCallback "ActivateProc" XtAddCallback $WIDGET activateCallback "XtSetSensitive $BUTTON false" A callback needs to be passed some context so it can determine what condition led to its call. For a C procedure, this information is typically passed in a call_data structure. For example, a Scale widget invoking a valueChangedCallback passes in call_data an instance of the following structure: typedef struct { int reason; XEvent *event; int value; } XmScaleCallbackStruct; The C application's callback does something like: if (scaleCallData->reason == XmCR_VALUE_CHANGED) { eventType = scaleCallData->event->type; display = scaleCallData->event->xany.display; } Similarly in dtksh, when a callback is invoked, the following special environment variables are set up before the callback command executes: CB_WIDGET Set to the widget handle for the widget invoking the callback. CB_CALL_DATA Set to the address of the call_data structure passed by the widget to the callback, but its usefulness lies in the nested sub-variables associated with it. The CB_CALL_DATA environment variable represents a pointer to a structure; access to its fields uses a syntax similar to the C code. Nested environment variables are defined, named the same as the fields of the structure (but folded to all upper case), and use a dot to indicate containment of an element in a structure. Thus, the preceding C code, to access the call_data provided by the Scale widget, translates to: if [${CB_CALL_DATA.REASON} = "CR_VALUE_CHANGED"]; then eventType=${CB_CALL_DATA.EVENT.TYPE} display=${CB_CALL_DATA.EVENT.XANY.DISPLAY} fi The same is true of the event structure within the call_data structure. For most callback structures, the shell script is able to reference any of the fields defined for the particular callback structure, using the technique previously described in this manual page. In most cases, the shell script is not able to alter the values of the fields within these structures. The exception to this is the XmTextVerifyCallbackStruct, available during the losingFocusCallback, the modifyVerifyCallback and the motionVerifyCallback for the text widget. The dtksh utility supports the modification of certain fields within this structure, to the extent that it is supported by Motif. The following fields within the callback structure can be modified: CB_CALL_DATA.DOIT CB_CALL_DATA.STARTPOS CB_CALL_DATA.ENDPOS CB_CALL_DATA.TEXT.PTR CB_CALL_DATA.TEXT. CB_CALL_DATA.TEXT.FORMAT An example of how these fields can be modified: CB_CALL_DATA.DOIT="false" CB_CALL_DATA.TEXT.PTR="*" CB_CALL_DATA.TEXT. Event Handler Context Variables As with callbacks, an application registers event handlers with a widget to specify what action should occur when one of the specified events occurs. Again, the action can be any arbitrary dtksh command line. For example: XtAddEventHandler $W "Button2MotionMask" false "ActivateProc" XtAddEventHandler $W "ButtonPressMask|ButtonReleaseMask" \ false "echo action" Just as with callbacks, two environment variables are defined to provide context to the event handler: EH_WIDGET Set to the widget handle for the widget for which the event handler is registered. EH_EVENT Set to the address of the XEvent that triggered the event handler. Access to the fields within the XEvent structure is the same as for the CB_CALL_DATA environment variable previously described in this manual page. For example: if [${EH_EVENT.TYPE} = "ButtonPress"]; then echo X = ${EH_EVENT.XBUTTON.X} echo Y = ${EH_EVENT.XBUTTON.Y} elif [${EH_EVENT.TYPE} = "KeyPress"]; then echo X = ${EH_EVENT.XKEY.X} echo Y = ${EH_EVENT.XKEY.Y} fi Translation Context Variables Xt provides for event translations to be registered for a widget; their context is provided in the same way as with event handlers. The two variables defined for translation commands are: TRANSLATION_WIDGET Set to the widget handle for the widget for which the translation is registered. TRANSLATION_EVENT Set to the address of the XEvent that triggered the translation. Dot-notation provides access to the fields of the event: echo Event type = ${TRANSLATION_EVENT.TYPE} echo Display = ${TRANSLATION_EVENT.XANY.DISPLAY} Workspace Callback Context Variables An application can register a callback function that is invoked any time the user changes to a new workspace. When the callback is invoked, the following two special environment variables are set, and can be accessed by the shell callback code: CB_WIDGET Set to the widget handle for the widget invoking the callback. CB_CALL_DATA Set to the X atom that uniquely identifies the new workspace. This can be converted to its string representation using the XmGetAtomName command. Accessing Event Subfields The XEvent structure has many different configurations based on the event's type. The dtksh utility provides access only to the most frequently used XEvents. Any of the other standard XEvents are accessed using the event type XANY, followed by any of the subfields defined by the XANY event structure, which includes the following subfields: ${TRANSLATION_EVENT.XANY.TYPE} ${TRANSLATION_EVENT.XANY.SERIAL} ${TRANSLATION_EVENT.XANY.SEND_EVENT} ${TRANSLATION_EVENT.XANY.DISPLAY} ${TRANSLATION_EVENT.XANY.WINDOW} The dtksh utility supports full access to all of the event fields for the following event types: XANY XBUTTON XEXPOSE XNOEXPOSE XGRAPHICSEXPOSE XKEY XMOTION The following examples show how the subfields for the previously listed event types are accessed: ${TRANSLATION_EVENT.XBUTTON.X} $(CB_CALL_DATA.EVENT.XKEY.STATE} ${EH_EVENT.XGRAPHICSEXPOSE.WIDTH} Input Context Variables Xt provides the XtAddInput(3Xt) facility that allows an application to register interest in activity on a particular file descriptor. This generally includes data available for reading, the file descriptor being ready for writing, and exceptions on the file descriptor. If programming in C, the application provides a handler function that is invoked when the activity occurs. When reading data from the file descriptor, it is up to the handler to read the data from the input source and handle character escaping and line continuations. The dtksh utility also supports the XtAddInput(3Xt) facility, but has limited its functionality to reading data, and has taken the reading function a step further to make it easier for shell programmers to use. By default, when a shell script registers interest in a file descriptor, dtksh invokes the shell script's input handler only when a complete line of text has been received. A complete line of text is defined to be a line terminated either by an unescaped newline character, or by end-of-file. The input handler is also called if no data is available and end-of-file is reached. This gives the handler the opportunity to use XtRemoveInput(3Xt) to remove the input source, and to close the file descriptor. The advantage of this default behavior is that input handlers do not need to do escape processing or handle line continuations. The disadvantage is that it assumes that all of the input is line-oriented and contains no binary information. If the input source does contain binary information, or if the input handler wants to read the data from the input source directly, dtksh also supports a raw input mode. In raw mode, dtksh does not read any of the data from the input source. Any time dtksh is notified that input is available on the input source, it invokes the shell script's input handler. It then becomes the handler's responsibility to read the incoming data, to perform any required buffering and escape processing, and to detect when end-of-file is reached (so that the input source can be removed and the file descriptor closed). Whether the input handler is configured to operate in the default mode or in raw mode, dtksh sets up several environment variables before calling the shell script's input handler. These environment variables provide the input handler with everything needed to handle the incoming data: INPUT_LINE If operating in the default mode, this variable contains the next complete line of input available from the input source. If INPUT_EOF is set to True, there is no data in this buffer. If operating in raw mode, this environment variable always contains an empty string. INPUT_EOF If operating in the default mode, this variable is set to False any time INPUT_LINE contains data, and is set to True when end-of-file is reached. When end-of-file is reached, the input handler for the shell script should unregister the input source and close the file descriptor. If operating in raw mode, INPUT_EOF is always set to False. INPUT_SOURCE Indicates the file descriptor for which input is available. If operating in raw mode, this file descriptor is used to obtain the pending input. The file descriptor is also used to close the input source when it is no longer needed. INPUT_ID Indicates the ID returned by XtAddInput when the input source was originally registered. This information is needed in order to remove the input source using XtRemoveInput.

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS

Default.

STDOUT

See ksh93(1CDE).

STDERR

See ksh93(1CDE).

OUTPUT FILES

None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION

The capabilities described here are extensions to those of the ksh command language interpreter. See ksh93(1CDE). The following subsections give a synopsis of each of the built-in commands added by dtksh to ksh. In general, argument ordering and types are the same as for corresponding C procedures, with exceptions noted. For more detail on the functionality and arguments of a command, see the standard documentation for the corresponding X11, Xt, Motif or Desktop Services procedure. In definitions listed in this document, arguments named variable, variable2, variable3 and so on, indicate that the shell script must supply the name of an environment variable, into which some value is returned. All of the Xt commands used to create a new widget require that the widget class for the new widget be specified. The widget (or gadget) class name is the standard class name provided by Motif. For example, the class name for a Motif pushbutton widget is XmPushButton, while the class name for the Motif label gadget is XmLabelGadget. Commands that use their exit status to return a Boolean value (which can be used directly as part of an if statement) are noted as such. Arguments enclosed within [] are optional. Dtksh Built-in Xlib Commands XBell display volume XClearArea display drawable [optional GC arguments] x y width height exposures XClearWindow display drawable XCopyArea display src dest srcX srcY width height destX destY [optional GC arguments] XDefineCursor display window cursor XDrawArc display drawable [optional GC arguments] x y width height angle1 angle2 XDrawLine display drawable [optional GC arguments] x1 y1 x2 y2 XDrawLines display drawable [-coordinateMode] [optional GC arguments] x1 y1 x2 y2 [x3 y3 ...] The coordinateMode operand is either CoordModeOrigin or CoordModePrevious. XDrawPoint display drawable [optional GC arguments] x y XDrawPoints display drawable [-coordinateMode] [optional GC arguments] x1 y1 [x2 y2 x3 y3 ...] The coordinateMode operand is either CoordModeOrigin or CoordModePrevious. XDrawRectangle display drawable [optional GC arguments] x y width height XDrawSegments display drawable [optional GC arguments] x1 y1 x2 y2 [x3 y3 x4 y4 ...] XDrawString display drawable [optional GC arguments] x y string XDrawImageString display drawable [optional GC arguments] x y string XFillArc display drawable [optional GC arguments] x y width height angle1 angle2 XFillPolygon display drawable [-shape] [-coordinateMode] [optional GC arguments] x1 y1 x2 y2 ... The shape operand is one of Complex, Convex or Nonconvex, and where coordinateMode is either CoordModeOrigin or CoordModePrevious. XFillRectangle display drawable [optional GC arguments] x y width height XFlush display XHeightOfScreen variable screen XRaiseWindow display window XRootWindowOfScreen variable screen XSync display discard The discard operand is either True or False. XTextWidth variable fontName string The XTextWidth command differs from the C procedure; it takes the name of a font instead of a pointer to a font structure. XUndefineCursor display window XWidthOfScreen variable screen Built-in XtIntrinsic Commands XtAddCallback widgetHandle callbackName dtksh-command The callbackName operand is one of the standard Motif or Xt callback names, with the Xt or Xm prefix omitted; for example, activateCallback. XtAddEventHandler widgetHandle eventMask nonMaskableFlag dtksh-command The eventMask operand is of the form mask|mask|mask and the mask component is any of the standard set of XEvent masks; for example, ButtonPressMask, where nonMaskableFlag is either True or False. XtAddInput variable [-r] fileDescriptor dtksh-command The XtAddInput command registers the indicated file descriptor with the X Toolkit as an alternative input source (that is, for reading). The input handler for the shell script is responsible for unregistering the input source when it is no longer needed, and also to close the file descriptor. If the -r option is specified (raw mode), dtksh does not automatically read any of the data available from the input source; it is up to the specified dtksh command to read all data. If the -r option is not specified, the specified dtksh command is invoked only when a full line has been read (that is, a line terminated by either an unescaped newline character, or end-of-file) and when end-of-file is reached. The raw mode is useful for handlers expecting to process non-textual data, or for handlers not wanting dtksh to automatically read in a line of data. When end-of-file is detected, it is the responsibility of the input handler for the shell script to use XtRemoveInput to remove the input source, and to close the file descriptor, if necessary. In all cases, several environment variables are set up for the handler to use. These include the following: INPUT_LINE Empty if raw mode; otherwise, contains next line to be processed. INPUT_EOF Set to True if end-of-file reached; otherwise, set to False. INPUT_SOURCE File descriptor associated with this input source. INPUT_ID ID associated with this input handler; returned by XtAddInput. XtAddTimeout variable interval dtksh-command XtAddWorkProc variable dtksh-command In dtksh, the dtksh-command is typically a dtksh function name. Like regular work procedures, this function is expected to return a value indicating whether the work procedure wants to be called again, or whether it has completed its work and can be automatically unregistered. If the dtksh function returns zero, the work procedure remains registered; any other value causes the work procedure to be automatically unregistered. XtAugmentTranslations widgetHandle translations XtCreateApplicationShell variable applicationName widgetClass [resource:value ...] XtCallCallbacks widgetHandle callbackName The callbackName operand is one of the standard Motif or Xt callback names, with the Xt or Xm prefix omitted; for example, activateCallback. XtClass variable widgetHandle The command returns the name of the widget class associated with the passed-in widget handle. XtCreateManagedWidget variable widgetName widgetClass parentWidgetHandle [resource:value ...] XtCreatePopupShell variable widgetName widgetClass parentWidgetHandle [resource:value ...] XtCreateWidget variable widgetName widgetClass parentWidgetHandle [resource:value ...] XtDestroyWidget widgetHandle [widgetHandle ...] XtDisplay variable widgetHandle XtDisplayOfObject variable widgetHandle XtGetValues widgetHandle resource:variable1 [resource:variable2 ...] XtHasCallbacks variable widgetHandle callbackName The callbackName operand is one of the standard Motif or Xt callback names, with the Xt or Xm prefix omitted: for example, activateCallback variable is set to one of the strings CallbackNoList, CallbackHasNone or CallbackHasSome. XtInitialize variable shellName applicationClassName applicationName arguments Similar to a typical Motif-based program, the arguments argument is used to reference any command-line arguments that might have been specified by the shell script user; these are typically referred using the shell syntax of $@. The applicationName argument is listed because $@ does not include $0. The applicationName and arguments are used to build the argument list passed to the XtInitialize command. Upon completion, the environment variable DTKSH_ARGV is set to the argument list as returned by the XtInitialize command; the DTKSH_TOPLEVEL environment variable is set to the widget handle of the widget created by XtInitialize, and the DTKSH_APPNAME environment variable is set to the value of the applicationName argument. The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XtIsManaged widgetHandle The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XtIsSubclass widgetHandle widgetClass The widgetClass operand is the name of a widget class. The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XtNameToWidget variable referenceWidget name XtIsRealized widgetHandle The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XtIsSensitive widgetHandle The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XtIsShell widgetHandle The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XtLastTimestampProcessed variable display XtMainLoop XtManageChild widgetHandle XtManageChildren widgetHandle [widgetHandle ...] XtMapWidget widgetHandle XtOverrideTranslations widgetHandle translations XtParent variable widgetHandle XtPopdown widgetHandle XtPopup widgetHandle grabType The grabType operand is one of the strings GrabNone, GrabNonexclusive or GrabExclusive. XtRealizeWidget widgetHandle XtRemoveAllCallbacks widgetHandle callbackName The callbackName operand is one of the standard Motif or Xt callback names, with the Xt or Xm prefix omitted; for example, activateCallback. XtRemoveCallback widgetHandle callbackName dtksh-command The callbackName operand is one of the standard Motif or Xt callback names, with the Xt or Xm prefix omitted; for example, activateCallback. As with traditional Xt callbacks, when a callback is removed, the same dtksh command string must be specified as was specified when the callback was originally registered. XtRemoveEventHandler widgetHandle eventMask nonMaskableFlag dtksh-command The eventMask operand is of the form mask|mask|mask and the mask component is any of the standard set of XEvent masks; for example, ButtonPressMask, where nonMaskableFlag is either True or False. As with traditional Xt event handlers, when an event handler is removed, the same eventMask, nonMaskableFlag setting and dtksh command string must be specified as was specified when the event handler was originally registered. XtRemoveInput inputId The inputId operand is the handle returned in the specified environment variable when the alternative input source was registered using the XtAddInput command. XtRemoveTimeOut timeoutId The timeoutId operand is the handle returned in the specified environment variable when the timeout was registered using the XtAddTimeOut command. XtRemoveWorkProc workprocId The workprocId operand is the handle returned in the specified environment variable when the work procedure was registered using the XtAddWorkProc command. XtScreen variable widgetHandle XtSetSensitive widgetHandle state The state operand is either True or False. XtSetValues widgetHandle resource:value [resource:value ...] XtUninstallTranslations widgetHandle XtUnmanageChild widgetHandle XtUnmanageChildren widgetHandle [widgetHandle ...] XtUnmapWidget widgetHandle XtUnrealizeWidget widgetHandle XtWindow variable widgetHandle Built-in Motif Commands XmAddWMProtocolCallback widgetHandle protocolAtom dtksh-command The protocolAtom operand is typically obtained using the XmInternAtom command. XmAddWMProtocols widgetHandle protocolAtom [protocolAtom ...] The protocolAtom operand is typically obtained using the XmInternAtom command. XmCommandAppendValue widgetHandle string XmCommandError widgetHandle errorString XmCommandGetChild variable widgetHandle childType The childType operand is one of the strings: DIALOG_COMMAND_TEXT DIALOG_PROMPT_LABEL DIALOG_HISTORY_LIST DIALOG_WORK_AREA XmCommandSetValue widgetHandle commandString XmCreateArrowButton variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateArrowButtonGadget variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateBulletinBoard variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateBulletinBoardDialog variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateCascadeButton variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateCascadeButtonGadget variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateCommand variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateDialogShell variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateDrawingArea variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateDrawnButton variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateErrorDialog variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateFileSelectionBox variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateFileSelectionDialog variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateForm variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateFormDialog variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateFrame variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateInformationDialog variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateLabel variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateLabelGadget variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateList variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateMainWindow variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateMenuBar variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateMenuShell variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateMessageBox variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateMessageDialog variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateOptionMenu variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreatePanedWindow variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreatePopupMenu variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreatePromptDialog variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreatePulldownMenu variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreatePushButton variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreatePushButtonGadget variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateQuestionDialog variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateRadioBox variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateRowColumn variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateScale variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateScrollBar variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateScrolledList variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateScrolledText variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateScrolledWindow variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateSelectionBox variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateSelectionDialog variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateSeparator variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateSeparatorGadget variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateText variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateTextField variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateToggleButton variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateToggleButtonGadget variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateWarningDialog variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateWorkArea variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmCreateWorkingDialog variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] XmFileSelectionDoSearch widgetHandle directoryMask XmFileSelectionBoxGetChild variable widgetHandle childType The childType operand is one of the strings: DIALOG_APPLY_BUTTON DIALOG_CANCEL_BUTTON DIALOG_DEFAULT_BUTTON DIALOG_DIR_LIST DIALOG_DIR_LIST_LABEL DIALOG_FILTER_LABEL DIALOG_FILTER_TEXT DIALOG_HELP_BUTTON DIALOG_LIST DIALOG_LIST_LABEL DIALOG_OK_BUTTON DIALOG_SEPARATOR DIALOG_SELECTION_LABEL DIALOG_TEXT DIALOG_WORK_AREA XmGetAtomName variable display atom XmGetColors widgetHandle background variable variable2 variable3 variable4 The XmGetColors command differs from the C procedure in that it takes a widgetHandle instead of a screen pointer and a colormap. XmGetFocusWidget variable widgetHandle XmGetPostedFromWidget variable widgetHandle XmGetTabGroup variable widgetHandle XmGetTearOffControl variable widgetHandle XmGetVisibility variable widgetHandle XmInternAtom variable display atomString onlyIfExistsFlag The onlyIfExistsFlag operand can be set to either True or False. XmIsTraversable widgetHandle The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmListAddItem widgetHandle position itemString The ordering of the arguments to the XmListAddItem command differs from the corresponding C function. XmListAddItems widgetHandle position itemString [itemString ...] The ordering of the arguments to the XmListAddItems command differs from the corresponding C function. XmListAddItemsUnselected widgetHandle position itemString [itemString ...] The ordering of the arguments to the XmListAddItemsUnselected command differs from the corresponding C function. XmListAddItemUnselected widgetHandle position itemString The ordering of the arguments to the XmListAddItemUnselected command differs from the corresponding C function. XmListDeleteAllItems widgetHandle XmListDeleteItem widgetHandle itemString XmListDeleteItems widgetHandle itemString [itemString ...] XmListDeleteItemsPos widgetHandle itemCount position XmListDeletePos widgetHandle position XmListDeletePositions widgetHandle position [position ...] XmListDeselectAllItems widgetHandle XmListDeselectItem widgetHandle itemString XmListDeselectPos widgetHandle position XmListGetSelectedPos variable widgetHandle The command returns in variable a comma-separated list of indices. The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmListGetKbdItemPos variable widgetHandle XmListGetMatchPos variable widgetHandle itemString The command returns in variable a comma-separated list of indices. The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmListItemExists widgetHandle itemString The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmListItemPos variable widgetHandle itemString XmListPosSelected widgetHandle position The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmListPosToBounds widgetHandle position variable variable2 variable3 variable4 The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmListReplaceItemsPos widgetHandle position itemString [itemString ...] The ordering of the arguments to the XmListReplaceItemsPos command differs from the corresponding C function. XmListReplaceItemsPosUnselected widgetHandle position itemString [itemString ...] The ordering of the arguments to the XmListReplaceItemsPosUnselected command differs from the corresponding C function. XmListSelectItem widgetHandle itemString notifyFlag The notifyFlag operand can be set to either True or False. XmListSelectPos widgetHandle position notifyFlag The notifyFlag operand can be set to either True or False. XmListSetAddMode widgetHandle state The state operand can be set to either True or False. XmListSetBottomItem widgetHandle itemString XmListSetBottomPos widgetHandle position XmListSetHorizPos widgetHandle position XmListSetItem widgetHandle itemString XmListSetKbdItemPos widgetHandle position The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmListSetPos widgetHandle position XmListUpdateSelectedList widgetHandle XmMainWindowSep1 variable widgetHandle XmMainWindowSep2 variable widgetHandle XmMainWindowSep3 variable widgetHandle XmMainWindowSetAreas widgetHandle menuWidgetHandle commandWidgetHandle horizontalScrollbarWidgetHandle verticalScrollbarWidgetHandle workRegionWidgetHandle XmMenuPosition widgetHandle eventHandle The eventHandle operand refers to an XEvent that has typically been obtained by accessing the CB_CALL_DATA.EVENT, EH_EVENT or TRANSLATION_EVENT environment variables. XmMessageBoxGetChild variable widgetHandle childType The childType operand is one of the strings: DIALOG_CANCEL_BUTTON DIALOG_DEFAULT_BUTTON DIALOG_HELP_BUTTON DIALOG_MESSAGE_LABEL DIALOG_OK_BUTTON DIALOG_SEPARATOR DIALOG_SYMBOL_LABEL XmOptionButtonGadget variable widgetHandle XmOptionLabelGadget variable widgetHandle XmProcessTraversal widgetHandle direction The direction operand is one of the strings: TRAVERSE_CURRENT TRAVERSE_DOWN TRAVERSE_HOME TRAVERSE_LEFT TRAVERSE_NEXT TRAVERSE_NEXT_TAB_GROUP TRAVERSE_PREV TRAVERSE_PREV_TAB_GROUP TRAVERSE_RIGHT TRAVERSE_UP The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmRemoveWMProtocolCallback widgetHandle protocolAtom dtksh-command The protocolAtom operand is typically obtained using the XmInternAtom command. As with traditional WM callbacks, when a callback is removed, the same dtksh command string must be specified as was specified when the callback was originally registered. XmRemoveWMProtocols widgetHandle protocolAtom [protocolAtom ...] The protocolAtom operand is typically obtained using the XmInternAtom command. XmScaleGetValue widgetHandle variable XmScaleSetValue widgetHandle value XmScrollBarGetValues widgetHandle variable variable2 variable3 variable4 XmScrollBarSetValues widgetHandle value sliderSize increment pageIncrement notifyFlag The notifyFlag operand can be set to either True or False. XmScrollVisible widgetHandle widgetHandle leftRightMargin topBottomMargin XmSelectionBoxGetChild variable widgetHandle childType The childType operand is one of the strings: DIALOG_CANCEL_BUTTON DIALOG_DEFAULT_BUTTON DIALOG_HELP_BUTTON DIALOG_APPLY_BUTTON DIALOG_LIST DIALOG_LIST_LABEL DIALOG_OK_BUTTON DIALOG_SELECTION_LABEL DIALOG_SEPARATOR DIALOG_TEXT DIALOG_WORK_AREA XmTextClearSelection widgetHandle time The time operand is typically either obtained from within an XEvent, or from a call to the XtLastTimestampProcessed command. XmTextCopy widgetHandle time The time operand is typically either obtained from within an XEvent, or from a call to the XtLastTimestampProcessed command. The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmTextCut widgetHandle time The time operand is typically either obtained from within an XEvent, or from a call to the XtLastTimestampProcessed command. The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmTextDisableRedisplay widgetHandle XmTextEnableDisplay widgetHandle XmTextFindString widgetHandle startPosition string direction variable The direction operand is one of the strings TEXT_FORWARD or TEXT_BACKWARD. The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmTextGetBaseline variable widgetHandle XmTextGetEditable widgetHandle The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmTextGetInsertionPosition variable widgetHandle XmTextGetLastPosition variable widgetHandle XmTextGetMaxLength variable widgetHandle XmTextGetSelection variable widgetHandle XmTextGetSelectionPosition widgetHandle variable variable2 The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmTextGetString variable widgetHandle XmTextGetTopCharacter variable widgetHandle XmTextInsert widgetHandle position string XmTextPaste widgetHandle The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmTextPosToXY widgetHandle position variable variable2 The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmTextRemove widgetHandle The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmTextReplace widgetHandle fromPosition toPosition string XmTextScroll widgetHandle lines XmTextSetAddMode widgetHandle state The state operand can be set to either True or False. XmTextSetEditable widgetHandle editableFlag The editableFlag operand can be set to either True or False. XmTextSetHighlight widgetHandle leftPosition rightPosition mode The mode operand is one of the strings: HIGHLIGHT_NORMAL HIGHLIGHT_SELECTED HIGHLIGHT_SECONDARY_SELECTED XmTextSetInsertionPosition widgetHandle position XmTextSetMaxLength widgetHandle maxLength XmTextSetSelection widgetHandle firstPosition lastPosition time The time operand is typically either obtained from within an XEvent, or from a call to the XtLastTimestampProcessed command. XmTextSetString widgetHandle string XmTextSetTopCharacter widgetHandle topCharacterPosition XmTextShowPosition widgetHandle position XmTextXYToPos variable widgetHandle x y XmTextFieldClearSelection widgetHandle time The time operand is typically either obtained from within an XEvent, or from a call to the XtLastTimestampProcessed command. XmTextFieldGetBaseline variable widgetHandle XmTextFieldGetEditable widgetHandle The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmTextFieldGetInsertionPosition variable widgetHandle XmTextFieldGetLastPosition variable widgetHandle XmTextFieldGetMaxLength variable widgetHandle XmTextFieldGetSelection variable widgetHandle XmTextFieldGetSelectionPosition widgetHandle variable variable2 The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmTextFieldGetString variable widgetHandle XmTextFieldInsert widgetHandle position string XmTextFieldPosToXY widgetHandle position variable variable2 The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmTextFieldRemove widgetHandle The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmTextFieldReplace widgetHandle fromPosition toPosition string XmTextFieldSetEditable widgetHandle editableFlag The editableFlag operand can be set to either True or False. XmTextFieldSetHighlight widgetHandle leftPosition rightPosition mode The mode operand is one of the strings: HIGHLIGHT_NORMAL HIGHLIGHT_SELECTED HIGHLIGHT_SECONDARY_SELECTED XmTextFieldSetInsertionPosition widgetHandle position XmTextFieldSetMaxLength widgetHandle maxLength XmTextFieldSetSelection widgetHandle firstPosition lastPosition time The time operand is typically either obtained from within an XEvent, or from a call to the XtLastTimestampProcessed command. XmTextFieldSetString widgetHandle string XmTextFieldShowPosition widgetHandle position XmTextFieldXYToPos variable widgetHandle x y XmTextFieldCopy widgetHandle time The time operand is typically either obtained from within an XEvent, or from a call to the XtLastTimestampProcessed command. The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmTextFieldCut widgetHandle time The time operand is typically either obtained from within an XEvent or from a call to the XtLastTimestampProcessed command. The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmTextFieldPaste widgetHandle The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmTextFieldSetAddMode widgetHandle state The state operand can be set to either True or False. XmToggleButtonGadgetGetState widgetHandle The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmToggleButtonGadgetSetState widgetHandle state notifyFlag The state operand can be set to either True or False. The notifyFlag operand can be set to either True or False. XmToggleButtonGetState widgetHandle The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. XmToggleButtonSetState widgetHandle state notifyFlag The state operand can be set to either True or False. The notifyFlag operand can be set to either True or False. XmUpdateDisplay widgetHandle Built-in CDE Application Help Commands DtCreateHelpQuickDialog variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] DtCreateHelpDialog variable parentWidgetHandle name [resource:value ...] DtHelpQuickDialogGetChild variable widgetHandle childType The childType operand is one of the strings: HELP_QUICK_OK_BUTTON HELP_QUICK_PRINT_BUTTON HELP_QUICK_HELP_BUTTON HELP_QUICK_SEPARATOR HELP_QUICK_MORE_BUTTON HELP_QUICK_BACK_BUTTON DtHelpReturnSelectedWidgetId variable widgetHandle variable2 The variable operand is set to one of the strings: HELP_SELECT_VALID HELP_SELECT_INVALID HELP_SELECT_ABORT HELP_SELECT_ERROR and variable2 is set to the widgetHandle for the selected widget. DtHelpSetCatalogName catalogName Built-in Localization Commands catopen variable catalogName Opens the indicated message catalog, and returns the catalog ID in the environment variable specified by variable. If a shell script needs to close the file descriptor associated with a message catalog, the catalog ID must be closed using the catclose command. catgets variable catalogId setNumber messageNumber defaultMessageString Attempts to extract the requested message string from the message catalog associated with the catalogId argument. If the message string cannot be located, the default message string is returned. In either case, the returned message string is placed into the environment variable indicated by variable. catclose catalogId Closes the message catalog associated with the indicated catalogId. Built-in Session Management Commands DtSessionRestorePath widgetHandle variable sessionFile Given the filename for the session file (excluding any path information), this command returns the full pathname for the session file in the environment variable indicated by variable. The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional, indicating whether the command succeeded. DtSessionSavePath widgetHandle variable variable2 The full pathname for the session file is returned in environment variable indicated by variable. The filename portion of the session file (excluding any path information) is returned in the environment variable indicated by variable2. The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional, indicating whether the command succeeded. DtShellIsIconified widgetHandle The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. DtSetStartupCommand widgetHandle commandString Part of the session management process is telling the session manager how to restart the application the next time the user reopens the session. This command passes along the specified command string to the session manager. The widget handle should refer to an application shell. DtSetIconifyHint widgetHandle iconifyHint The iconifyHint operand can be set to either True or False. This command sets the initial iconified state for a shell window. This command only works if the window associated with the widget has not yet been realized. Built-in Workspace Management Commands DtWsmAddCurrentWorkspaceCallback variable widgetHandle dtksh-command This command evaluates the specified dtksh command whenever the user changes workspaces. The handle associated with this callback is returned in the environment variable indicated by variable. The widget indicated by widgetHandle should be a shell widget. DtWsmRemoveWorkspaceCallback callback-handle The callback-handle must be a handle that was returned by DtWsmAddCurrentWorkspaceCallback. DtWsmGetCurrentWorkspace display rootWindow variable This command returns the X atom representing the user's current workspace in the environment variable indicated by variable. The XmGetAtomName command maps the X atom into its string representation. DtWsmSetCurrentWorkspace widgetHandle workspaceNameAtom This command changes the user's current workspace to the workspace indicated by workspaceNameAtom. The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional, indicating whether the command succeeded. DtWsmGetWorkspaceList display rootWindow variable This command returns in variable a string of comma-separated X atoms, representing the current set of workspaces defined for the user. The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional, indicating whether the command succeeded. DtWsmGetWorkspacesOccupied display window variable This command returns a string of comma-separated X atoms, representing the current set of workspaces occupied by the indicated shell window in the environment variable indicated by variable. The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional, indicating whether the command succeeded. DtWsmSetWorkspacesOccupied display window workspaceList This command moves the indicated shell window to the set of workspaces indicated by the string workspaceList, which must be a comma-separated list of X atoms. DtWsmAddWorkspaceFunctions display window DtWsmRemoveWorkspaceFunctions display window DtWsmOccupyAllWorkspaces display window DtWsmGetCurrentBackdropWindows display rootWindow variable This command returns in variable a string of comma-separated window IDs representing the set of root backdrop windows. Built-in Action Commands The set of commands in this section provides the programmer with the tools for loading the action databases, querying information about actions defined in the databases, and requesting that an action be initiated. DtDbLoad This command reads in the action and data types databases. It must be called before any of the other Action or Data Typing Commands. The shell script should also use the DtDbReloadNotify command so that the shell script can be notified if new databases must be loaded. DtDbReloadNotify dtksh-command The specified dtksh command is executed when the notification is received. Typically, the dtksh command includes a call to the DtDbLoad command. DtActionExists actionName The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. DtActionLabel variable actionName If the action does not exist, then an empty string is returned. DtActionDescription variable actionName This command returns an empty string if the action is not defined, or if the DESCRIPTION attribute is not specified. DtActionInvoke widgetHandle actionName termOpts execHost contextDir useIndicator dtksh-command [FILE fileName] ... The [FILE fileName] couplets can be used to specify file arguments to be used by DtActionInvoke when invoking the specified action. The dtksh- command argument is not supported in CDE 1.0, and should be specified as a null ("") value. Built-in Data Typing Commands DtDtsLoadDataTypes This command should be invoked before any of the other data typing commands. DtDtsFileToDataType variable filePath This command returns the name of the data type associated with the file indicated by the filePath argument in the variable argument. The variable argument is set to an empty string if the file cannot be typed. DtDtsFileToAttributeValue variable filePath attrName This command returns the string representing the value of the specified attribute for the data type associated with the indicated file in the variable argument. If the attribute is not defined, or if the file cannot be typed, the variable argument is set to an empty string. DtDtsFileToAttributeList variable filePath This command returns the space-separated list of attribute names defined for the data type associated with the indicated file in the variable argument. A shell script queries the individual values for the attributes using the DtDtsFileToAttributeValue command. The variable argument is set to an empty string if the file cannot be typed. This command differs from the corresponding C function in that it only returns the names of the defined attributes and not their values. DtDtsDataTypeToAttributeValue variable dataType attrName optName This command returns the string representing the value of the specified attribute for the indicated data type in variable. If the attribute is not defined, or if the indicated data type does not exist, the variable argument is set to an empty string. DtDtsDataTypeToAttributeList variable dataType optName This command returns the space-separated list of attribute names defined for the indicated data type in variable. A shell script queries the individual values for the attributes using the DtDtsDataTypeToAttributeValue command. The variable argument is set to an empty string if the data type is not defined. This command differs from the corresponding C function in that it only returns the names of the defined attributes, and not their values. DtDtsFindAttribute variable name value This command returns a space-separated list of data type names whose attribute, indicated by the name argument, has the value indicated by the value argument. If an error occurs, the variable argument is set to an empty string. DtDtsDataTypeNames variable This command returns a space-separated list representing all of the data types currently defined in the data types database. If an error occurs, the variable argument is set to an empty string. DtDtsSetDataType variable filePath dataType override The variable argument is set to the resultant saved data type for the directory. DtDtsDataTypeIsAction dataType The command returns a value that can be used in a conditional. Built-in CDE Desktop Services Message Set Commands The following set of commands implement a subset of the Desktop Services Message Set, allowing shell script participation in the Desktop Services protocol. Many of the ToolTalk commands differ slightly from their associated C programming call. For ToolTalk commands that typically return a pointer, a C application can validate that pointer by calling the tt_ptr_error function; this C function call returns a Tt_status value, which indicates whether the pointer was valid, and if not, why it was not. In dtksh, all of the Desktop Services Message Set Commands that return a pointer also return the associated Tt_status value for the pointer automatically; this saves the shell script from needing to make an additional call to check the validity of the original pointer. In the case of a pointer error occurring, dtksh returns an empty string for the pointer value, and sets the Tt_status code accordingly. The Tt_status value is returned in the status argument. The Tt_status value is a string representing the error, and can assume any of the values shown in the manual page for Tttt_c(5). Some of the commands take a message scope as an argument. For these commands, the scope argument can be set to a string representing any of the constants documented for tt_message_scope(3) and in the manual pages for the individual ToolTalk functions. tt_file_netfile variable status file name tt_netfile_file variable status netfile name tt_host_file_netfile variable status host file name tt_host_netfile_file variable status host netfile name ttdt_open variable status variable2 toolname vendor version sendStarted This command returns in the variable argument the procId associated with the connection. It returns the file descriptor associated with the connection in variable2; this file descriptor can be used in registering an alternative Xt input handler via the XtAddInput command. The sendStarted argument is True or False. Any procIds returned by ttdt_open contain embedded spaces. To prevent dtksh from interpreting the procId as multiple arguments (versus a single argument with embedded spaces), references to the environment variable containing the procId must be within double quotes, as shown: ttdt_close STATUS "$PROC_ID" "" True tttk_Xt_input_handler procId source id In order for the ToolTalk messages to be received and processed, the shell script must register an Xt input handler for the file descriptor returned by the call to ttdt_open. The Xt input handler is registered using the XtAddInput command, and the handler must be registered as a raw input handler. The input handler that the shell script registers should invoke tttk_Xt_input_handler to get the message received and processed. The following code block demonstrates how this is done: ttdt_open PROC_ID STATUS FID "Tool" "HP" "1.0" True XtAddInput INPUT_ID -r $FID "ProcessTTInput \"$PROC_ID\"" ProcessTTInput() { tttk_Xt_input_handler $1 $INPUT_SOURCE $INPUT_ID } Refer to the description of the XtAddInput command for more details about alternative Xt input handlers. This command can be specified as an alternative Xt input handler, using the XtAddInput command. The procId value should be that which was returned by the ttdt_open command. When registering tttk_Xt_input_handler as an alternative Xt input handler, it must be registered as a raw handler to prevent dtksh from automatically breaking up the input into lines. This can be done as follows: XtAddInput returnId -r $tt_fd \ "tttk_Xt_input_handler \"$procId\"" The \" characters before and after the reference to the procId environment variable are necessary to protect the embedded spaces in the procId environment variable. ttdt_close status procId newProcId sendStopped This command closes the indicated communications connection, and optionally sends a Stopped notice, if the sendStopped argument is set to True. Because the procId returned by the call to ttdt_open contains embedded spaces, it must be enclosed within double quotes, as shown: ttdt_close STATUS "$PROC_ID" "$NEW_PROC_ID" False ttdt_session_join variable status sessId shellWidgetHandle join This command joins the session indicated by the sessId argument. If the sessId argument does not specify a value (that is, it is an empty string), then the default session is joined. If the shellWidgetHandle argument specifies a widget handle (that is, it is not an empty string), then it should refer to a mappedWhenManaged applicationShellWidget. The join argument is True or False. This command returns an opaque pattern handle in the variable argument; this handle can be destroyed using the ttdt_session_quit command when it is no longer needed. ttdt_session_quit status sessId sessPatterns quit This command destroys the message patterns specified by the sessPatterns argument, and, if the quit argument is set to True, it quits the session indicated by the sessId argument, or it quits the default session if sessId is empty. ttdt_file_join variable status pathName scope join dtksh-command An opaque pattern handle is returned in the variable argument; this should be destroyed by calling ttdt_file_quit when there is no interest in monitoring messages for the indicated file. The requested dtksh-command is evaluated any time a message is received for the indicated file. When this dtksh-command is evaluated, the following environment variables are defined, and provide additional information about the received message: DT_TT_MSG The opaque handle for the incoming message. DT_TT_OP The string representing the operation to be performed; that is, TTDT_DELETED, TTDT_MODIFIED, TTDT_REVERTED, TTDT_MOVED or TTDT_SAVED. DT_TT_PATHNAME The pathname for the file to which this message pertains. DT_TT_SAME_EUID_EGID Set to True if the message was sent by an application operating with the same effective user ID and effective group ID as this process. DT_TT_SAME_PROCID Set to True if the message was sent by an application with the same procId (as returned by ttdt_open). When the callback completes, it must indicate whether the passed-in message was consumed (replied-to, failed or rejected). If the callback returns the message (as passed in the DT_TT_MSG environment variable), it is assumed that the message was not consumed. If the message was consumed, the callback should return zero, or one of the values returned by the tt_error_pointer command. The callback can return its value in the following fashion: return $DT_TT_MSG (or) return 0 ttdt_file_quit status patterns quit This command destroys the message patterns specified by the patterns argument, and also unregisters interest in the pathname that was passed to the ttdt_file_join command if quit is set to True; the patterns argument should be the value returned by a call to the ttdt_file_join command. ttdt_file_event status op patterns send This command creates, and optionally sends, a ToolTalk notice announcing an event pertaining to a file. The file is indicated by the pathname passed to the ttdt_file_join command when patterns was created. The op argument indicates what should be announced for the indicated file, and can be set to TTDT_MODIFIED, TTDT_SAVED or TTDT_REVERTED. If op is set to TTDT_MODIFIED, this command registers to handle Get_Modified, Save and Revert messages in the scope specified when the patterns was created. If op is set to TTDT_SAVED or TTDT_REVERTED, this command unregisters from handling Get_Modified, Save and Revert messages for this file. If the send argument is set to True, the indicated message is sent. ttdt_Get_Modified pathName scope timeout This commands sends a Get_Modified request in the indicated scope, and waits for a reply, or for the specified timeout (in milliseconds) to elapse. It returns a value that can be used in a conditional. A value of True is returned if an affirmative reply is received within the specified timeout; otherwise, False is returned. ttdt_Save status pathName scope timeout This command sends a Save request in the indicated scope, and waits for a reply, or for the indicated timeout (in milliseconds) to elapse. A status of TT_OK is returned if an affirmative reply is received before the timeout elapses; otherwise, a Tt_status error value is returned. ttdt_Revert status pathName scope timeout This command sends a Revert request in the indicated scope, and waits for a reply, or for the indicated timeout (in milliseconds) to elapse. A status of TT_OK is returned if an affirmative reply is received before the timeout elapses; otherwise, a Tt_status error value is returned. The following commands are typically used by the callback registered with the ttdt_file_join command. They serve as the mechanism for consuming and destroying a message. A message is consumed by either rejecting, failing or replying to it. The tt_error_pointer is used by the callback to get a return pointer for indicating an error condition. tt_error_pointer variable ttStatus This command returns a magic value, which is used by ToolTalk to represent an invalid pointer. The magic value returned depends on the ttStatus value passed in. Any of the valid Tt_status values can be specified. tttk_message_destroy status msg This command destroys any patterns that may have been stored on the message indicated by the msg argument, and then it destroys the message. tttk_message_reject status msg msgStatus msgStatusString destroy This command sets the status and the status string for the indicated request message, and then rejects the message. It then destroys the passed-in message if the destroy argument is set to True. This command is one way in which the callback specified with the ttdt_file_join command consumes a message. After rejecting the message, it is typically safe to destroy the message using tttk_message_destroy. tttk_message_fail status msg msgStatus msgStatusString destroy This command sets the status and the status string for the indicated request message, and then it fails the message. It destroys the passed-in message if the destroy argument is set to True. This command is one way in which the callback specified with the ttdt_file_join command consumes a message. After failing the message, it is typically safe to destroy the message, using tttk_message_destroy. tt_message_reply status msg This command informs the ToolTalk service that the shell script has handled the message specified by the msg argument. After replying to a message, it is typically safe to destroy the message using the tttk_message_destroy command. Listing Widget Information The DtWidgetInfo command provides the shell programmer a mechanism for obtaining information about the current set of instantiated widgets and their resources; the information is written to the standard output. This provides useful debugging information by including: · The list of instantiated widgets, including: the name, class and parent of the widget; a handle for the widget; the name of the environment variable supplied when the widget was created; the state of the widget. · The list of resources supported by a particular widget class. · The list of constraint resources supported by a particular widget class. DtWidgetInfo is called by using any of the following syntaxes; all of the arguments are optional: DtWidgetInfo [widgetHandle | widgetName] If no arguments are supplied, information about all existing widgets is written to standard output; the information includes the name, the handle, the environment variable, the parent, the widget class and the state. If arguments are supplied, they should be either widget handles, or the names of existing widgets; in this case, the information is written only for the requested set of widgets. DtWidgetInfo -r [widgetHandle | widgetClass] If no arguments are supplied, the list of supported resources is written to standard output for all available widget classes. If arguments are supplied, they should be either widget handles, or the widget class names; in this case, the information is written only for the requested set of widgets or widget classes. DtWidgetInfo -R [widgetHandle | widgetClass] If no arguments are supplied, the list of supported constraint resources, if any, is written to standard output for all available widget classes. If arguments are supplied, they should be either widget handles, or the widget class names; in this case, the information is written only for the requested set of widgets or widget classes. DtWidgetInfo -c [widgetClass] If no arguments are supplied, the list of supported widget class names is written to standard output. If arguments are supplied, dtksh writes the widget class name (if it is defined); otherwise, it writes an error message to standard error. DtWidgetInfo -h [widgetHandle] If no arguments are supplied, the list of active widget handles is written to standard output. If arguments are supplied, they should represent widget handles, in which case the name of the associated widget is written to standard output. Convenience Functions The CDE system includes a file of dtksh convenience functions. This file is itself a shell script containing shell functions that may be useful to a shell programmer. The shell functions perform frequently used operations. These include functions for quickly creating certain kinds of dialogs (help, error, warning and so on), and a function for easily creating a collection of buttons and functions that make it easier to configure the constraint resources for a child of a form widget. It is not a requirement that shell script writers use these convenience functions; they are supplied to make it easier for developers to write shorter and more readable shell scripts. Before a shell script can access these functions, the shell script must first include the file containing the convenience functions. The convenience functions are located in the file /usr/dt/lib/dtksh/DtFuncs.dtsh, and are included in a shell script using the following notation: . /usr/dt/lib/dtksh/DtFuncs.dtsh DtkshAddButtons This convenience function adds one or more buttons of the same kind into a composite widget. Most frequently, it is used to add a collection of buttons into a menupane or menubar. DtkshAddButtons parent widgetClass label1 callback1 [label2 callback2 ...] DtkshAddButtons [-w] parent widgetClass variable1 label1 callback1 [variable2 label2 callback2 ...] The -w option indicates that the convenience function should return the widget handle for each of the buttons it creates. The widget handle is returned in the specified environment variable. The widgetClass argument can be set to any one of the following, and defaults to XmPushButtonGadget, if not specified: XmPushButton XmPushButtonGadget XmToggleButton XmToggleButtonGadget XmCascadeButton XmCascadeButtonGadget Examples: DtkshAddButtons $MENU XmPushButtonGadget Open do_Open Save \ do_Save Quit exit DtkshAddButtons -w $MENU XmPushButtonGadget B1 Open \ do_Open B2 Save do_Save DtkshSetReturnKeyControls This convenience function configures a text widget (within a form widget), so the carriage-return key does not activate the default button within the form. Instead, the carriage-return key moves the focus to the next text widget within the form. This is useful if a window, containing a series of text widgets and the default button, should not be activated until the user presses the carriage-return key while the focus is in the last text widget. DtkshSetReturnKeyControls textWidget nextTextWidget formWidget defaultButton The textWidget argument specifies the widget to be configured so it catches the carriage-return key, and forces the focus to move to the next text widget (as indicated by the nextTextWidget argument). The formWidget argument specifies the form containing the default button, and must be the parent of the two text widgets. The defaultButton argument indicates which component to treat as the default button within the form widget. Examples: DtkshSetReturnKeyControls $TEXT1 $TEXT2 $FORM $OK DtkshSetReturnKeyControls $TEXT2 $TEXT3 $FORM $OK DtkshUnder, DtkshOver, DtkshRightOf, DtkshLeftOf These convenience functions simplify the specification of certain classes of form constraints. They provide a convenient way of attaching a component to one edge of another component. They are used when constructing the resource list for a widget. This behavior is accomplished using the ATTACH_WIDGET constraint. DtkshUnder widgetId [offset] DtkshOver widgetId [offset] DtkshRightOf widgetId [offset] DtkshLeftOf widgetId [offset] The widgetId argument specifies the widget to which the current component is to be attached. The offset value is optional, and defaults to zero, if not specified. Example: XtCreateManagedWidget BUTTON4 button4 pushButton $FORM \ labelString:"Exit" $(DtkshUnder $BUTTON2) \ $(DtkshRightOf $BUTTON3) DtkshFloatRight, DtkshFloatLeft, DtkshFloatTop, DtkshFloatBottom These convenience functions simplify the specification of certain classes of form constraints. They provide a convenient way of positioning a component, independent of the other components within the form. As the form grows or shrinks, the component maintains its relative position within the form. The component may still grow or shrink, depending on the other form constraints specified for the component. This behavior is accomplished using the ATTACH_POSITION constraint. DtkshFloatRight [position] DtkshFloatLeft [position] DtkshFloatTop [position] DtkshFloatBottom [position] The optional position argument specifies the relative position to which the indicated edge of the component is positioned. A default position is used, if one is not specified. Example: XtCreateManagedWidgetBUTTON1 button1 pushButton \ $FORM labelString:"Ok" $(DtkshUnder $SEPARATOR) \ $(DtkshFloatLeft 10) $(DtkshFloatRight 40) DtkshAnchorRight, DtkshAnchorLeft, DtkshAnchorTop, DtkshAnchorBottom These convenience functions simplify the specification of certain classes of form constraints. They provide a convenient way of attaching a component to one of the edges of a form widget in such a fashion that, as the form grows or shrinks, the component's position does not change. However, depending on the other form constraints set on this component, the component may still grow or shrink in size. This behavior is accomplished using the ATTACH_FORM constraint. DtkshAnchorRight [offset] DtkshAnchorLeft [offset] DtkshAnchorTop [offset] DtkshAnchorBottom [offset] The optional offset argument specifies how far from the edge of the form widget the component should be positioned. If an offset is not specified, zero is used. Example: XtCreateManagedWidget BUTTON1 button1 pushButton \ $FORM labelString:"Ok" $(DtkshUnder $SEPARATOR) \ $(DtkshAnchorLeft 10) $(DtkshAnchorBottom 10) DtkshSpanWidth, DtkshSpanHeight These convenience functions simplify the specification of certain classes of form constraints. They provide a convenient way of configuring a component such that it spans either the full height or width of the form widget. This behavior is accomplished by attaching two edges of the component (top and bottom for DtkshSpanHeight, and left and right for DtkshSpanWidth) to the form widget. The component typically resizes whenever the form widget is resized. The ATTACH_FORM constraint is used for all attachments. DtkshSpanWidth [leftOffset rightOffset] DtkshSpanHeight [topOffset bottomOffset] The optional offset arguments specify how far from the edges of the form widget the component should be positioned. If an offset is not specified, zero is used. Example: XtCreateManagedWidget SEP sep separator $FORM $(DtkshSpanWidth 1 1) DtkshDisplayInformationDialog, DtkshDisplayQuestionDialog, DtkshDisplay- WarningDialog, DtkshDisplayWorkingDialog, DtkshDisplayErrorDialog These convenience functions create a single instance of each of the Motif feedback dialogs. If an instance of the requested type of dialog already exists, it is reused. The parent of the dialog is obtained from the environment variable, TOPLEVEL, which should be set by the calling shell script, and then should not be changed. The handle for the requested dialog is returned in one of the following environment variables: DTKSH_ERROR_DIALOG_HANDLE DTKSH_QUESTION_DIALOG_HANDLE DTKSH_WORKING_DIALOG_HANDLE DTKSH_WARNING_DIALOG_HANDLE DTKSH_INFORMATION_DIALOG_HANDLE When attaching callbacks to the dialog buttons, the application should not destroy the dialog; it should simply unmanage the dialog so that it can be used again later. If it is necessary to destroy the dialog, the associated environment variable should also be cleared, so the convenience function does not attempt to reuse the dialog. DtkshDisplay*Dialog title message [okCallback closeCallback \ helpCallback dialogStyle] The Ok button is always managed, and by default unmanages the dialog. The Cancel and Help buttons are only managed when a callback is supplied for them. The dialogStyle argument accepts any of the standard resource settings supported by the associated bulletin board resource. Example: DtkshDisplayErrorDialog "Read Error" "Unable to read the file" \ "OkCallback" "CancelCallback" "" DIALOG_PRIMARY_APPLICATION_MODAL DtkshDisplayQuickHelpDialog, DtkshDisplayHelpDialog These convenience functions create a single instance of each of the help dialogs. If an instance of the requested type of help dialog already exists, it is reused. The parent of the dialog is obtained from the environment variable, TOPLEVEL, which should be set by the calling shell script, and then should not be changed. The handle for the requested dialog is returned in one of the following environment variables: DTKSH_HELP_DIALOG_HANDLE DTKSH_QUICK_HELP_DIALOG_HANDLE If it is necessary to destroy a help dialog, the application should also clear the associated environment variable, so that the convenience function does not attempt to reuse the dialog. DtkshDisplay*HelpDialog title helpType helpInformation [locationId] The meaning of the arguments depends on the value specified for the helpType argument. The meanings are explained in the following table: helpType helpInformation locationId ____________________________________________________________________ HELP_TYPE_DYNAMIC_STRING help string <not used> HELP_TYPE_FILE help file name <not used> HELP_TYPE_MAN_PAGE manual page name <not used> HELP_TYPE_STRING help string <not used> HELP_TYPE_TOPIC help volume name help topic location ID ____________________________________________________________________ Example: DtkshDisplayHelpDialog "Help On Dtksh" HELP_TYPE_FILE "helpFileName" Dtksh App-Defaults File The dtksh app-defaults file, named dtksh, is in a location based on the following path description: /usr/dt/app-defaults/<LANG> The only information contained in this app-defaults file is the inclusion of the standard desktop base app-defaults file. The contents of the dtksh app-defaults file is as follows: #include "Dt" Non-String Values The C bindings of the interfaces to X, Xt and Motif include many non-string values defined in headers. For example, the constraint values for a child of a form widget are declared, such as XmATTACH_FORM, with an Xt or Xm prefix followed by a descriptive name. Equivalent values are specified in dtksh by omitting the prefix, just as in an app-defaults file. For example: XmDIALOG_COMMAND_TEXT becomes DIALOG_COMMAND_TEXT; XtATTACH_FORM becomes ATTACH_FORM. A Boolean value can be specified as an argument to a dtksh command using the words True or False; case is not significant. Return Values From Built-in Commands Graphical commands in dtksh fall into one of four categories, based on the definition of the corresponding C function in a windowing library: 1. The function returns no values. Example: XtMapWidget. 2. The function is void, but returns one or more values through reference arguments. Example: XmGetColors. 3. The function returns a non-Boolean value. Example: XtCreateManagedWidget. 4. The function returns a Boolean value. Example: XtIsSensitive. A category 1 command follows the calling sequence of its corresponding C function exactly; the number and order of arguments can be determined by looking at the standard documentation for the function. Example: XtMapWidget $FORM A category 2 command also generally follows the calling sequence as its corresponding C function. Where a C caller would pass in a pointer to a variable in which a value is returned, the dtksh command returns a value in an environment variable. Example: XmGetColors $FORM $BG FOREGROUND TOPSHADOW BOTTOMSHADOW SELECT echo "Foreground color = " $FOREGROUND A category 3 command differs slightly from its corresponding C function. Where the C function returns its value as the value of the procedure call, a dtksh command requires an additional argument, which is always the first argument, and is the name of an environment variable into which the return value is placed. Example: XmTextGetString TEXT_VALUE $TEXT_WIDGET echo "The value of the text field is "$TEXT_VALUE A category 4 command returns a Boolean value that can be used in a conditional expression, just as with the corresponding C function. If the C function also returns values through reference variables (as in category 2), the dtksh command also uses variable names for the corresponding arguments. Example: if XmIsTraversable $PUSH_BUTTON; then echo "The pushbutton is traversable" else echo "The pushbutton is not traversable" fi Generally, the order and type of arguments passed to a command matches those passed to the corresponding C function, except as noted for category 3 commands. Other exceptions are described in the applicable command descriptions. Widget Handles Where a C function returns a widget handle, the corresponding dtksh commands set an environment variable equal to the widget handle. These are category 3 commands; they take as one of their arguments the name of an environment variable in which to return the widget handle. (This is an ASCII string used by dtksh to access the actual widget pointer.) For example, either of the following commands could be used to create a new form widget; in both cases, the widget handle for the new form widget is returned in the environment variable FORM: XtCreateManagedWidget FORM name XmForm $PARENT XmCreateForm FORM $PARENT name After either of the above commands, $FORM can be used to reference the form widget. For instance, to create a label widget within the form widget just created, the following command could be used: XmCreateLabel LABEL $FORM namelabelString:"Hi Mom" \ topAttachment:ATTACH_FORM leftAttachment:ATTACH_FORM There is a special widget handle called NULL, provided for cases where a shell script may need to specify a NULL widget. For example, the following disables the defaultButton resource for a form widget: XtSetValues $FORM defaultButton:NULL Widget Resources Some of the Xt and Motif commands allow the shell script to pass in a variable number of arguments, representing resource and value pairs. This is similar to the arglist passed in to the corresponding Xt or Motif C function. Examples of these commands include any of the commands used to create a widget, and the XtSetValues command. In dtksh, resources are specified by a string with the following syntax: resource:value. The name of the resource is given in the resource portion of the string; it is constructed by taking the corresponding Xt or Motif resource name and omitting the Xt or Xm prefix. The value to be assigned to the resource is given in the value portion of the string. The dtksh utility automatically converts the value string to an appropriate internal representation. For example: XtSetValues $WIDGET height:100 width:200 resizePolicy:RESIZE_ANY XmCreateLabel LABEL $PARENT myLabel labelString:"Close Dialog" When widget resources are retrieved using XtGetValues, the return value has the same syntax. For example: XtGetValues $WIDGET height:HEIGHT resizePolicy:POLICY \ sensitive:SENSITIVE echo $HEIGHT echo $POLICY echo $SENSITIVE Certain types of resource values have special representation. These include string tables and bit masks. For instance, the XmList widget allows a string table to be specified both for the items and the selectedItems resources. In dtksh, a string table is represented as a comma-separated list of strings, which is compatible with how Motif handles them from a resource file. When a resource that returns a string table is queried using XtGetValues(3Xt), the resulting value is again a comma- separated set of strings. A resource that expects a bit mask value to be passed in, expects the mask to be specified as a string composed of the various mask values separated by the ``|'' character. When a resource that returns a bit mask is queried, the return value also is a string representing the enabled bits, separated by the ``|'' character. For example, the following sets the mwmFunctions resource for the VendorShell widget class: XtSetValues mwmFunctions MWM_FUNC_ALL|MWM_FUNC_RESIZE Unsupported Resources The dtksh utility supports most of the resources provided by Motif; however, there are certain resources that dtksh does not support. The list of unsupported resources follows. Several of these resources can be specified at widget creation time by using XtSetValues, but cannot be retrieved using XtGetValues; these are indicated by the asterisk (*) following the resource name. All Widget And Gadget Classes: Any font list resource (*) Any pixmap resource (*) Composite: insertPosition children Core: accelerators translations (*) colormap XmText: selectionArray selectionArrayCount ApplicationShell: argv WMShell: iconWindow windowGroup Shell: createPopupChildrenProc XmSelectionBox: textAccelerators Manager, Primitive and Gadget Subclasses: userData XmFileSelectionBox: dirSearchProc fileSearchProc qualifySearchDataProc

EXIT STATUS

See ksh93(1CDE).

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS

See ksh93(1CDE).

APPLICATION USAGE

Initializing The Toolkit Environment Before any of the Xlib, Xt or Motif commands can be invoked, the shell script must first initialize the Xt toolkit by invoking the XtInitialize command, which returns an application shell widget. XtInitialize, as with all of the commands that return a widget handle, returns the widget handle in the environment variable named in its first argument. For example: XtInitialize TOPLEVEL myShellName Dtksh $0$@ Shell script writers should invoke the XtInitialize command as one of the first commands within a dtksh shell script. This allows dtksh to locate its message catalog and the correct app-defaults file. If a shell error occurs before XtInitialize has been called, it is possible that unlocalized error messages may be displayed. The dtksh utility provides a default app-defaults file to use if the call to XtInitialize specifies an application class name of Dtksh. This app-defaults file loads in the standard set of desktop application default values, so that these applications have a consistent look with other desktop applications. Responding to a Window Manager Close Notice When the user selects the Close item on the window manager menu for an application, the application is terminated unless it has arranged to catch the Close notification. Multiple windows managed by the application disappear, and application data may be left in an undesirable state. To avoid this, dtksh provides for catching and handling the Close notification. The application must: · Define a procedure to handle the Close notification · Request notification when Close is selected and override the response, so the application is not shut down The following code illustrates this processing: # This is the `callback' invoked when the user selects # the `Close' menu item WMCallback() { echo "User has selected the Close menu item" } # Create the toplevel application shell XtInitialize TOPLEVEL test Dtksh "$@" XtDisplay DISPLAY $TOPLEVEL # Request notification when the user selects the `Close' # menu item XmInternAtom DELETE_ATOM $DISPLAY "WM_DELETE_WINDOW" false XmAddWMProtocolCallback $TOPLEVEL $DELETE_ATOM "WMCallback" # Ask Motif to not automatically close down your # application window XtSetValues $TOPLEVEL deleteResponse:DO_NOTHING Responding to a Session Management Save State Notice Session management facilities allow applications to save their current state when the user terminates the current session, so that when the user later restarts the session, an application returns to the state it was in. In dtksh this is accomplished by setting up a handler analogously to handling a Close notification. If no such handler is set up, the application has to be restarted manually in the new session, and does not retain any state. To set up a handler to save state, the application must do the following: · Define functions to save state at end-of-session, and restore it on start-up. · Register interest in the session management notification. · Register the function to save state. · Determine if saved state should be restored at start-up. The following code illustrates this process: #! /usr/dt/bin/dtksh # Function invoked when the session is being ended by the user SessionCallback() { # Get the name of the file into which we should save our # session information if DtSessionSavePath $TOPLEVEL PATH SAVEFILE; then exec 9>$PATH # Save off whether we are currently in an iconified state if DtShellIsIconified $TOPLEVEL ; then print -u9 `Iconified' else print -u9 `Deiconified' fi # Save off the list of workspaces we currently reside in if DtWsmGetWorkspacesOccupied $(XtDisplay "-" $TOPLEVEL) $(XtWindow "-" $TOPLEVEL) CURRENT_WS_LIST ; then # Map the comma-separated list of atoms into # their string representation oldIFS=$IFS IFS="," for item in $CURRENT_WS_LIST; do XmGetAtomName NAME $(XtDisplay "-" $TOPLEVEL) $item print -u9 $NAME done IFS=$oldIFS fi exec 9<&- # Let the session manager know how to invoke us when # the session is restored DtSetStartupCommand $TOPLEVEL "/usr/dt/contrib/dtksh/SessionTest $SAVEFILE" else echo "DtSessionSavePath FAILED!!" exit -3 fi } # Function invoked during a restore session; restores the # application to its previous state RestoreSession() { # Retrieve the path where our session file resides if DtSessionRestorePath $TOPLEVEL PATH $1; then exec 9<$PATH read -u9 ICONIFY # Extract and restore our iconified state case $ICONIFY in Iconified) DtSetIconifyHint $TOPLEVEL True;; *) DtSetIconifyHint $TOPLEVEL False; esac # Extract the list of workspaces we belong in, convert # them to atoms, and ask the workspace manager to relocate # us to those workspaces WS_LIST="" while read -u9 NAME do XmInternAtom ATOM $(XtDisplay "-" $TOPLEVEL) $NAME False if [ ${#WS_LIST} -gt 0 ]; then WS_LIST=$WS_LIST,$ATOM else WS_LIST=$ATOM fi done DtWsmSetWorkspacesOccupied $(XtDisplay "-" $TOPLEVEL) $(XtWindow "-" $TOPLEVEL) $WS_LIST exec 9<&- else echo "DtSessionRestorePath FAILED!!" exit -3 fi } ################## Create the Main UI ####################### XtInitialize TOPLEVEL wmProtTest Dtksh "$@" XtCreateManagedWidget DA da XmDrawingArea $TOPLEVEL XtSetValues $DA height:200 width:200 XmInternAtom SAVE_SESSION_ATOM $(XtDisplay "-" $TOPLEVEL) "WM_SAVE_YOURSELF" False # If a command-line argument was supplied, then treat it as the # name of the session file if (( $# > 0)) then # Restore to the state specified in the passed-in session file XtSetValues $TOPLEVEL mappedWhenManaged:False XtRealizeWidget $TOPLEVEL XSync $(XtDisplay "-" $TOPLEVEL) False RestoreSession $1 XtSetValues $TOPLEVEL mappedWhenManaged:True XtPopup $TOPLEVEL GrabNone else # This is not a session restore, so come up in the default state XtRealizeWidget $TOPLEVEL XSync $(XtDisplay "-" $TOPLEVEL) False fi # Register the fact that we are interested in participating in # session management XmAddWMProtocols $TOPLEVEL $SAVE_SESSION_ATOM XmAddWMProtocolCallback $TOPLEVEL $SAVE_SESSION_ATOM SessionCallback XtMainLoop Cooperating with WorkSpace Management The dtksh utility provides access to all of the major workspace management functions of the desktop libraries, including functions for: · Querying and setting the set of workspaces with which an application is associated. · Querying the list of all workspaces. · Querying and setting the current workspace. · Requesting that an application be notified any time the user changes to a different workspace. From a user's perspective, workspaces are identified by a set of names, but from the workspace manager's perspective, workspaces are identified by X atoms. Whenever the shell script asks for a list of workspace identifiers, a string of X atoms is returned; if more than one X atom is present, the list is comma-separated. The workspace manager expects that the shell script uses the same format when passing workspace identifiers back to it. During a given session, it is safe for the shell script to work with the X atoms since they remain constant over the lifetime of the session. However, as was shown in the Session Management shell script example, if the shell script is going to save and restore workspace identifiers, the workspace identifiers must be converted from their X atom representation to a string before they are saved. Then, when the session is restored, the shell script needs to remap the names into X atoms before passing the information on to the workspace manager. Mapping between X atoms and strings and between strings and X atoms uses the following two commands: XmInternAtom ATOM $DISPLAY $WORKSPACE_NAME false XmGetAtomName NAME $DISPLAY $ATOM Creating Localized Shell Scripts Scripts written for dtksh are internationalized, and then localized, in a process very similar to C applications. All strings that may be presented to the user are identified in the script; a post-processor extracts the strings from the script, and from them builds a catalog, which can then be translated to any desired locale. When the script executes, the current locale determines which message catalog is searched for strings to display. When a string is to be presented, it is identified by a message-set ID (corresponding to the catalog), and a message number within the set; these values determine what text the user sees. The following code illustrates the process: # Attempt to open our message catalog catopen MSG_CAT_ID "myCatalog.cat" # The localized button label is in set 1, and is message # 2 XtCreatePushButton OK $PARENT ok labelString:$(catgets $MSG_CAT_ID 1 2 "OK") # The localized button label is in set 1, and is message #3 XtCreatePushButton CANCEL $PARENT cancel labelString:$(catgets $MSG_CAT_ID 1 3 "Cancel") # Close the message catalog, when no longer needed catclose $MSG_CAT_ID The file descriptor returned by catopen must be closed using catclose, and not using the ksh exec command. Using the dtksh Utility to Access X Drawing Functions The commands of the dtksh utility include standard Xlib drawing functions to draw lines, points, segments, rectangles, arcs and polygons. In the standard C programming environment, these functions take a graphics context, or GC as an argument, in addition to the drawing data. In dtksh drawing functions, a collection of GC options are specified in the argument list to the command. By default, the drawing commands create a GC that is used for that specific command and then discarded. If the script specifies the -gc option, the name of the graphics context object can be passed to the command; this GC is used in interpreting the command, and the variable is updated with any modifications to the GC performed by the command. -gc GC GC is the name of an environment variable that has not yet been initialized, or which has been left holding a graphic context by a previous drawing command. If this option is specified, it must be the first GC option specified. -foreground color Foreground color, which can be either the name of a color or a pixel number. -background color Background color, which can be either the name of a color or a pixel number. -font font name Name of the font to be used. -line_width number Line width to be used during drawing. -function drawing function Drawing function, which can be any of the following: xor, or, clear, and, copy, noop, nor, nand, set, invert, equiv, andReverse, orReverse or copyInverted. -line_style style Line style, which can be any of the following: LineSolid, LineDoubleDash or LineOnOffDash. Setting Widget Translations: The dtksh utility provides mechanisms for augmenting, overriding and removing widget translations, much as in the C programming environment. In C, an application installs a set of translation action procedures, which can then be attached to specific sequences of events (translations are composed of an event sequence and the associated action procedure). Translations within dtksh are handled in a similar fashion, except only a single action procedure is available. This action procedure, named ksh_eval, interprets any arguments passed to it as dtksh commands, and evaluates them when the translation is triggered. The following shell script segment gives an example of how translations can be used: BtnDownProcedure() { echo "Button Down event occurred in button "$1 } XtCreateManagedWidget BUTTON1 button1 XmPushButton $PARENT labelString:"Button 1" translations:'#augment <EnterNotify>:ksh_eval("echo Button1 entered") <Btn1Down>:ksh_eval("BtnDownProcedure 1")' XtCreateManagedWidget BUTTON2 button2 XmPushButton $PARENT labelString:"Button 2" XtOverrideTranslations $BUTTON2 '#override <Btn1Down>:ksh_eval("BtnDownProcedure 2")'

EXAMPLES

None.

SEE ALSO

ksh93(1CDE).

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