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euro, Euro, EUR - Euro currency sign
The Euro currency is the new currency for European countries belonging to
the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). Euro currency was introduced in
1999. By January 2002, the new currency is scheduled to replace local
currencies for most EMU member countries.
The Euro currency has its own euro currency sign, which looks like an equal
sign (=) superimposed on the capital letter C. Several character sets have
been updated or invented to include the euro character. Among these are:
· Unicode Version 2.1 or later. The euro currency sign was not defined
in Unicode codesets prior to the Version 2.1 Unicode standard.
Implementations of Unicode encoding formats based on pre-2.1 versions
do not include the euro character.
· ISO/IEC 8859-15 (Latin-9)
· Certain DOS and Microsoft code pages
If your character set does not support the euro character, you can prepend
the string EUR before monetary amounts in Euro currency in the same way USD
is sometimes used to specify U. S. dollars in certain kinds of financial
The following table specifies the encoding position of the euro character
in each of these character sets:
Character Set Euro Position
Unicode (ISO/IEC 10646) U+20AC
ISO/IEC 8859-15 (Latin-9) 0xA4
GB18030 (Chinese Standard) 0xa2e3
CP1250 (Windows Latin-2) 0x80
CP1251 (Windows Cyrillic) 0x88
CP1252 (Windows Latin-1) 0x80
CP1253 (Windows Greek) 0x80
CP1254 (Windows Turkish) 0x80
CP1255 (Windows Hebrew) 0x80
CP1256 (Windows Arabic) 0x80
CP1257 (Windows Baltic) 0x80
CP1258 (Windows Vietnamese) 0x80
CP874 (DOS Thai) 0x80
Locales That Support the Euro Character
Tru64 UNIX locales that support the euro character use either the UTF-8 or
ISO 8859-15 codeset. The following table lists these locales by language
Chinese - Simplified (People's Republic of China)
Chinese - Traditional (Hong Kong)
Chinese - Traditional and Simplified (Taiwan)
Czech (Czech Republic)
Dutch (The Netherlands)
English (Great Britain)
en_EU.UTF-8@euro (This is a special-purpose locale that is
explained following the list.)
en_US.UTF-8, en_US.UTF-8@euro, en_US.ISO8859-15
From the Options menu of the Login window, CDE users can choose .UTF-8
locales by using the Language menu and choosing languages whose names are
followed by "(Unicode)." Alternatively, users can set the LANG environment
variable to one of the .UTF-8 locales in a terminal emulation window. The
Latin-9 locales can be set in a terminal emulation window. When set in a
terminal emulation window, the locale setting applies to child applications
subsequently invoked from that window.
The @euro locale variants provide LC_MONETARY definitions for the euro
character and are intended for assignment specifically to the LC_MONETARY
locale variable. In these locales, the local currency sign is defined to be
the euro character and the international currency sign is defined to be
EUR. In addition, the LC_MONETARY definition is set to the euro character
for the .UTF-8 and .ISO8859-15 locales of the languages that have fully
adopted the euro; see l10n_intro(5). Because the euro character is not in
the Latin-1 character repertoire, the .ISO8859-1 (Latin-1) locales for
these languages continue to use the pre-euro local currency; lira in
Italian, for example.
The en_US.UTF-8@euro locale defines the radix point to be the period (.)
and the thousands separator to be the comma (,). The en_EU.UTF-8@euro
locale reverses these character assignments; the radix point is a comma (,)
and the thousands separator is a period (.). Because en_EU.UTF-8@euro is
intended for assignment only to LC_MONETARY, the locale is useful for
languages other than English. For example, support for the euro character
in Poland can be obtained by setting LANG to pl_PL.UTF-8 and LC_MONETARY to
The LC_ALL environment variable overrides settings of all locale
category variables, such as LC_MONETARY. When setting LC_MONETARY to
be different from settings for the remainder of locale categories, be
sure to use the LANG, not the LC_ALL, environment variable.
Applications that currently assume that 1 character of data is represented
by 1 byte of data in file code can more easily support the euro character
by running in a .ISO8859-15 locale rather than a .UTF-8 locale. Because
UTF-8 is basically a multibyte character encoding format, programmers
cannot assume that 1 character is equal to 1 byte of input data. To run in
a .UTF-8 locale, applications should use functions that handle multibyte
and wide-character data rather than older functions that operate only on
single-byte characters. See Writing Software for the International Market
for more information on this topic. See Unicode(5)for more information
about UTF-8 encoding formats.
Codeset Converters That Support the Euro Character
Codeset converters are available to convert data between encoding formats
that support the euro character. Codeset converters can convert file data
between the following formats:
· Unicode encoding formats and the 874 and 125* code pages
· Unicode encoding formats and ISO 8859-15 (Latin-9)
For more information about these codeset converters, see iconv_intro(5),
Unicode(5), code_page(5), and iso8859-15(5).
Keyboard Entry of the Euro Character
Depending on locale setting and keyboard style, you can use particular key
sequences to enter the euro character.
When using a .UTF-8 or .ISO8859-15 locale and a keyboard that supports the
Compose-character entry method, you can use the Compose key input method to
enter the euro character. For Compose-key input, you press and release
certain keys in sequence, starting with the key defined as the Compose key.
For the euro character, use one of the following two sequences:
· Compose C =
· Compose = C
Left Compose+E is the most efficient key sequence for entering the euro
character on VT-style keyboards in all languages that support the euro
(except for the United Kingdom). In the United Kingdom, the VT-style
keyboard sequence is Left Compose+4.
Right Alt+E is the most efficient key sequence for entering the euro
character on PC-style keyboards in all languages that support the euro
(except for the United Kingdom). In the United Kingdom, the PC-style
keyboard sequence is Right Alt+4.
The key sequences are supported only by xkb format keymaps (which are the
default for CDE users). When using these key sequences, you hold down the
first key while pressing the other.
See keyboard(5) for more information about keyboards, keymaps, and
character entry modes.
Font Support for the Euro Character
The operating system does not provide native Unicode fonts that include
glyphs for the euro character. However, the character is supported by a set
of Latin-9 fonts. The X font library has been extended to combine a number
of fonts together to provide logical Unicode fonts for applications to use.
The names of these logical fonts end with ISO10646-1. You can use the
xlsfonts utility to find out if these fonts are installed on your system.
Printer Support for the Euro Character
Printing of file data in UTF-8 or Latin-9 format is supported by a generic
PostScript print filter. See wwpsof(8) for information on how to configure
this print filter.
Commands: xlsfonts(1X), wwpsof(8)
Others: code_page(5), i18n_intro(5), i18n_printing(5), iconv_intro(5),
iso8859-15(5), keyboard(5), l10n_intro(5), Unicode(5)
Writing Software for the International Market
Using International Software
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