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DtStdAppFontNames - CDE Standard Application Font Names
The CDE Standard Application Font Names are a set of generic X Window
System font names, usable by applications as their default fonts, for the
most common categories of type designs and styles. These names, for at
least six sizes of 13 typefaces, must be provided on all CDE systems, and
they should be provided in any X server product on which CDE applications
are expected to run. They are typically mapped to existing fonts on the
system using the font alias mechanism, although this method is not
CDE 1.0 does not come with a common set of fonts on all vendors' systems,
and both CDE itself and CDE applications must be able to run on X servers
and X terminals from non-CDE vendors if those vendors so desire. Therefore,
there are a standard set of ``generic'' font names and sizes that each CDE
vendor makes available on their CDE systems and that X server vendors may
make available on their X servers and terminals. The names map to existing
fonts on each vendor's system, which may vary from vendor to vendor.
The CDE Standard Application Font Names described here allow applications
to use a single set of default font specifications in their app-defaults
files, without concern for the system or X server on which CDE is running.
These app-defaults application defaults are given as XLFD font name
patterns that will match the standard CDE font names on all CDE systems.
This allows application developers both to reduce their concern with
selecting their default fonts from a varying set of fonts on different CDE
systems and to make use of the system default fonts.
Application fonts are the fonts used within an application, where a wide
variety of text designs, styles, weights and point sizes are useful. These
variations are used for emphasis, cross-references, section headers, and so
forth. There are thousands of fonts available in the market for use in
applications, and different CDE systems will have different fonts. The
standard names attempt to provide the minimum variety in generic designs,
styles and sizes that an application might want to use as defaults. (The
CDE Standard Interface Font Names, described in DtStdInterfaceFontNames(5),
provide a similar mechanism for the elements of the CDE desktop itself).
Common application font names prevent applications from needing different
app-defaults files on each CDE system. The Standard Application Font Names
allow applications to use a single app-defaults file across all CDE
systems. In addition, any X server or X terminal vendor may ensure that CDE
applications can run on their X server by mapping these standard
application names to fonts of the corresponding style on their individual X
Two of the most common design variations in fonts used to display text are
the presence or absence of serifs and the choice between proportional or
regularly spaced (mono-spaced) characters. Combining these two design
variations yields four ``generic'' font designs, or families:
· serif proportionally-spaced
· sans serif proportionally-spaced
· serif mono-spaced
· sans serif mono-spaced
Common examples of these four designs are:
· Times Roman
· Lucida Sans Typewriter
Each of these designs typically come, for text fonts, in four styles
(combinations of weight and slant):
The four styles of each of the four design variations yield 16 generic font
variations. These 16 generic fonts are among the most commonly used in
general desktop computing. For example, taking the first three real
examples above (Times Roman, Helvetica, Courier), these 12 fonts, along
with the Symbol font, constitute the so-called ``Adobe 13'' that is a de
facto minimum set of fonts in the PostScript community in the desktop
In some cases, applications do not care about the exact font family or name
to be used, but do need to use a mono-spaced font, a sans serif font or a
serif font. This CDE mechanism allows such applications to be freed from
the need to be concerned about the exact font names that may or may not be
present on a particular CDE system.
The Standard Names for the Latin-1 Character Set
The 13 standard application font names are provided on all CDE systems only
for the ISO 8859 (Latin-1) character set. These represent 12 generic design
and style variations (serif and sans serif proportionally-spaced, and a
mono-spaced font that is either serif or sans serif), as well as a symbol
font. These standard names are provided in addition to the ``real'' names
of the fonts that the standard names are mapped to for a particular CDE
system. An additional four standard font names, to allow both serif and
sans serif designs in a mono-spaced font, may also be provided by a CDE
XLFD Field Values for the Standard Application Font Names
The standard names are available using the X Window System XLFD font naming
scheme. There are three aspects to the standard names:
· The "underlying font" on each system, or X server platform, to which a
standard name is mapped, typically will be different on each system.
· The "standard name" itself, a full XLFD name mapped to the underlying
font, may be different on each system in some of the XLFD fields.
However, most of the fields are the same from system to system,
allowing the patterns (described next) to be the same.
· The font resource "pattern" containing the * wildcards, used in app-
defaults files, which will match the full XLFD name of the standard
name, is the same across all systems, for a given use in an app-
Each CDE or X server vendor implementing this specification must provide
full XLFD names for the standard names, mapped to system-dependent
underlying fonts, so that the XLFD patterns used in CDE application app-
defaults files will always match one of the full XLFD names provided.
The Standard Application Font Names are identified by the presence of the
following XLFD field name values:
· FOUNDRY is dt
· FAMILY_NAME is application
· WEIGHT_NAME is medium or bold
· SLANT is r or i
· SETWIDTH is normal
· ADD_STYLE is sans for sans serif, serif for serif
· SPACING is p or m
· CHARSET_REGISTRY is iso8859
· CHARSET_ENCODING is 1
Although sans and serif are not required by the XLFD font convention, they
are always part of the standard CDE font names.
The complete set of point sizes available for each of the standard
application font names is determined by the set of fonts included in a
system, whether bitmapped only or both bitmapped and scalable outline. The
minimum set of sizes required and available on all CDE systems corresponds
to the standard sizes of bitmapped fonts that make up the default mapping
for X11R5: 8, 10, 12, 14, 18 and 24.
For example, the entire set of six sizes of the plain monospaced font, on
any CDE system, is represented by:
These patterns will match the corresponding standard font name on any CDE
system, even though the PIXEL_SIZE and AVERAGE_WIDTH numeric fields may be
different on various systems, and the matched fonts may be either serif or
sans serif, depending on the implementation of the set of standard names.
The RESOLUTION fields in the XLFD names of the underlying fonts, when those
fonts are bitmapped fonts, must match the resolution of the monitor on
which the fonts are displayed for the point sizes to be accurate. To
provide expected point size behavior for applications, systems should
ensure that the RESOLUTION_X and RESOLUTION_Y fields of the underlying
fonts vary no more than 20% from the real monitor resolution of the
displays on which the fonts will be used.
Applications requesting point sizes different from the six in the minimum
set may obtain either ``scaled bitmapped'' fonts of the requested design,
or scaled outline versions of the requested design. This behavior requires
that the X server in question support the scaling of fonts and that the
standard names are mapped to underlying fonts that can be scaled using this
Example XLFD Patterns for the Standard Names
Using the specified field values for these standard names, subsets of the
standard names can be represented with various XLFD patterns. The XLFD
logically matches the full set of Standard Application Font Names. (Note
that no specific X server behavior is implied). The pattern
matches the bold, proportionally-spaced CDE fonts, both serif and sans
serif. And the pattern
matches the monospaced fonts (including both serif and sans serif).
The full set of CDE Standard Application Font Names can be represented with
the following patterns:
Each of these 13 standard names comes in at least six point sizes.
Implementation of Font Names
Each CDE system vendor and X server vendor provides mappings of their own
fonts to XLFD names meeting this standard, so that CDE applications will
work on their system. The actual XLFD names will vary from system to
system, just as the fonts they are mapped to, since they contain some of
the same values as the XLFD name of the underlying font. What does not vary
is the behavior: the common patterns in which only specified fields are
used will match each system's standard names. This is guaranteed by the
field specifications given earlier.
The following requirements are placed on each CDE or X server vendor's
implementation of the Standard Application Font Names:
· The names must be fully specified XLFD names, without wild cards.
· The WEIGHT_NAME, SLANT, SETWIDTH_NAME, SPACING, CHARSET_REGISTRY and
CHARSET_ENCODING fields must contain valid values as defined
previously and must match those in the underlying font.
· The ADD_STYLE_NAME field must contain either the serif or sans
designation, whichever matches the underlying font.
Default CDE Mappings for Latin-1 Locales
The default mapping of these standard application font names for the ISO
8859 locales is to the following standard X11R5 bitmapped fonts (the six
minimum sizes are not shown explicitly in these patterns):
A system may provide a different mapping of these standard names as long as
all 13 names map to fonts of the appropriate design and style and the
required six point sizes are available. The system documentation must
document the system-specific default mapping for the standard names.
Font Names in app-defaults Files
An application can use a single app-defaults file to specify font resources
and use it across all CDE systems. Since most of the fields (FOUNDRY,
FAMILY_NAME, WEIGHT_NAME, SLANT, SETWIDTH_NAME, ADD_STYLE_NAME, POINT_SIZE,
SPACING, CHARSET_REGISTRY and CHARSET_ENCODING) of the standard names are
the same across different systems, these values can be used in the resource
specification in the app-defaults file. However, other fields (PIXEL_SIZE,
RESOLUTION_X, RESOLUTION_Y and AVERAGE_WIDTH) may vary across systems, and
so must be wild-carded in the resource specification. For example:
might be used to specify some of AppOne's default font resource needs.
Other Character Sets in the Common Locales
The standard application font names defined above are for use in locales
using the ISO 8859 character set only. For other locales supported by CDE,
there are no fonts guaranteed to be included. However, for the following
locales, it is recommended that systems provide fonts with the following
XLFD attribute values, and that they be accessible using these names. For
full information on how vendors, if they ship the recommended fonts, would
make such names usable with the appropriate font base name lists required
for correct CDE support for internationalization, see the guidelines in the
"CDE Internationalization Programming Guide" document.
Locales using ISO 8859-2, -3, -4, -5 (Cyrillic), -7 (Greek):
The same values for FOUNDRY, FAMILY_NAME, WEIGHT_NAME, SLANT,
SET_WIDTH, ADD_STYLE and SPACING as are used in this definition for the
ISO 8859 locale are recommended.
Two values for the FAMILY_NAME attribute (Gothic and Mincho) and two
values for the WEIGHT attribute (mediumand bold) are recommended.
Chinese (Taiwan) locales:
Two values for the FAMILY_NAME attribute (Sung and Kai) and two values
for the WEIGHT attribute (medium and bold) are recommended.
Chinese (PRC) locales:
Two values for the FAMILY_NAME attribute (Song and Kai) and two values
for the WEIGHT atribute (medium and bold) are recommended.
Two values for the FAMILY_NAME attribute (Totum and Pathang) and two
values for the WEIGHT attribute (medium and bold) are recommended. Note
that these names are unofficial, tentative romanizations of the two
common font families in use in Korea; Totum corresponds to fonts
typically shipped as Gothic, Kodig or Dotum and Pathang corresponds to
fonts typically shipped as Myungjo or Myeongjo. The official roman
names for these fonts are under review and may be changed in the future
by the Korean government, and thus may change for CDE.
There is no requirement on a CDE system to implement these standard names
in a particular way. Several mechanisms are possible: duplicate font files
with altered naming attributes, X11R5 font aliases, or vendor-specific
mechanisms. The only requirement is that an XLFD pattern, written with
attributes taken from the set that define the standard names, can be
successfully used to open a font with the Xlib function XLoadFont; and,
specifically, the Xlib function XListFonts need NOT return the same XLFD
names for the pattern on different CDE systems.
CDE applications should, of course, be written to behave in a reasonable
manner if these standard font names are not available on a particular X
server. This is typically done in an X application by defaulting to the
fixed and variable fonts.
dtstyle(1), dtterm(1), DtStdInterfaceFontNames(5)
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