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uucp_manual_setup - Describes how to manually set up the UNIX-to-UNIX Copy
Setting up UUCP manually includes the following tasks:
· Checking for required directories
· Optionally, creating the UUCP manager's account
· Creating UUCP accounts for remote systems
· Configuring remote communications links, which consists of editing the
· Configuring the uucico daemon
· Verifying the configuration files
· Setting up TCP/IP communications
Before you set up UUCP, be certain that all of the appropriate hardware is
in place. For information on required hardware, see the Network
Administration: Services manual.
CHECKING FOR REQUIRED DIRECTORIES
Verify that the directories, programs, and support files required to
operate the UUCP programs are available on the local system. To perform
the verification, log in as superuser and enter the uucheck -v command.
The uucheck program displays an explanation of how it is checking the file
structure. Errors reported by uucheck could indicate that the software
installation process did not complete successfully.
See the Network Administration: Services manual for more information.
CREATING UUCP ACCOUNTS FOR REMOTE SYSTEMS
For a user on a remote system to log in to the local system, the remote
system must have an entry in the local /etc/passwd file, or the user must
know the login ID and password for a designated UUCP account on the local
system. Likewise, for a user on the local system to log in to a remote
system, the local system must have an entry in the remote system's
/etc/passwd file, or the user must know the login ID and password of a
designated UUCP account on the remote system. You must coordinate
assigning system login names and passwords for the local /etc/passwd file
with the system administrator of the remote system.
By convention, the login ID assigned to remote systems is the remote
system's name with an uppercase U added as a prefix. Many systems, however,
have a single UUCP account for all remote systems to use.
You must add a user account to the /etc/passwd file for remote systems that
log in to your system.
Use the following procedure to set up a remote system's account:
1. Invoke vipw to edit the /etc/passwd file:
The format for entries in the /etc/passwd file is:
name: password: UID: GID: class: home_dir: shell
The following is a sample entry for a remote system:
Uhost1::4:2:uucp login for host1:/usr/spool/uucppublic:\
For more information, see the passwd(4) reference page.
2. Use the passwd command to set a password for the new account. Note
that the password you supply does not echo to the screen.
# passwd Uhost1
Changing password for Uhost1.
Retype new password:
The Permissions file is used to further control incoming connections
and remote systems' access to the local system. For more information
on the Permissions file, see the Permissions reference page.
CONFIGURING REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS LINKS
There are three ways to set up the link needed for remote communications:
· Use a hardwired line with a device such as a workstation. The
hardwired connection links a port on the local system to a port on the
remote system. A hardwired line is advantageous when users on local
systems communicate frequently with remote systems; the link is always
available and access time is short. However, a port used for a
hardwired communications link is not available for any other purpose.
A hardwired connection is made over an RS-232 or RS-422 serial port at
transmission rates of up to 19,200 bits per second. The recommended
length of such direct links is 50 feet or less because signal noise
becomes a problem with greater distances. It is possible to obtain
longer lengths by using a lower transmission rate, limited distance
modems (short-haul modems), or both at both ends of the link.
· Use a telephone line with a modem. In this case, the user on the
local system establishes the connection to a remote system through an
Automatic Calling Unit (ACU), also referred to as an autodialer or a
modem. The modem attached to the remote system answers the telephone,
and the communications software then completes the connection.
The advantage of a modem connection using a phone line is that the
local and remote ports are not dedicated to a single system. The
disadvantage is that the port of the remote system may be busy
handling a connection with another system. A dialup link also requires
additional software and hardware, such as the ACU, that is not
necessary with a hardwired connection.
· Use a TCP/IP connection over a local area network (LAN).
In order for UUCP to function correctly at your site, configure the remote
communication facilities by doing the following:
· Edit the Devices file and add a list of the devices used to establish
a hardwired communications link, a communications link using TCP/IP,
or a communications link using a telephone line and a modem. For more
information, see the Devices(4) reference page.
· Edit the Dialers file and add a list of autodialers (modems) used to
contact remote systems using the telephone network. For more
information, see the Dialers(4) reference page.
· Edit the Systems file and add a list of the remote systems with which
the local system can communicate. For more information, see the
Systems(4) reference page.
· Optionally, edit the Dialcodes file and add a list of alphabetic
abbreviations representing the prefixes of telephone numbers used to
contact the specified remote systems. For more information, see the
Dialcodes(4) reference page.
· Edit the Permissions file and add the appropriate access permissions
specifying the way in which local and remote systems can communicate.
For more information, see the Permissions(4) reference page.
· Edit the Poll file and add a schedule for monitoring the networked
remote systems. For more information, see the Poll(4) reference page.
CONFIGURING THE UUCICO DAEMON
The uucico daemon transfer UUCP command, data, and execute files to remote
systems. Both the local and remote systems run the uucico daemon, and the
two daemons communicate with each other to complete transfer requests.
Typically, the uucico daemon is set up as the UUCP users's login shell for
incoming connections, or it is automatically called by various UUCP
commands for outgoing connections, and no further configuration is
necessary. However, you might need to specify the type of flow control
uucico uses for certain UUCP transfers. For example, if you establish a
connection to a terminal server via a modem and then telnet to a UUCP
account, you might require a different type of flow control than a user who
initiates UUCP transfers via a serial port connection.
To specify the type of flow control that the uucico daemon uses, set the
FLWCTL environment variable for the accounts on your system that are used
for UUCP connections. Permitted values for FLWCTL are: HW (hardware), SW
(software), HSW (hardware and software), and NONE. The local and remote
systems should use the same type of flow control. If the remote site runs
UUCP on a different platform, FLWCTL should be set to NONE on the Tru64
For example, if you need to establish a UUCP connection over telnet as
previously described, you would set flow control to NONE as follows:
$ export FLWCTL=NONE
$ /usr/lib/uucp/uutry remote_site
On a system that is configured to allow other sites to dial in, you can
create a customized script that will automatically set the FLWCTL variable
1. Create a file, optionally called uu_start, that contains the following
exec /usr/lib/uucp/uucico $*
2. Change the permissions on the file to make it executable:
# chmod +x /usr/local/bin/uu_start
3. Change the UUCP account's login shell from /usr/lib/uucp/uucico to the
new executable file:
# chsh uucp
Old shell: /usr/lib/uucp/uucico
New shell: /usr/local/bin/uu_start
VERIFYING THE CONFIGURATION FILES
When the UUCP files are customized for your site, issue the uucheck command
to check for possible errors in the Permissions file. Remember that the
uucheck command does not check file or directory modes, nor does it check
for duplicate login or MACHINE names.
Issue the uucheck -v command to obtain a detailed explanation of the way
that UUCP interprets the Permissions file.
If the uucheck -v command displays an error message, use the pg command to
examine the Permissions file and make sure the entries are correct. Then
reissue the uucheck -v command.
Use the uuname command to ensure that all the hosts included in the Systems
file on the local system are actually on the UUCP network. If a system is
networked correctly, it appears on the list displayed on the screen. The
hosts on this list are the systems to which users can send mail.
SETTING UP TCP/IP COMMUNICATIONS
The uucpd daemon handles communications between UUCP and TCP/IP. This
daemon enables users on systems linked over a local area network (LAN) to
establish uucp connections to other systems using TCP/IP connections.
Use the following procedure to enable UUCP and TCP/IP to communicate:
1. Check to see whether the /etc/services file includes the following
uucp 540/tcp uucpd
If it does not, add it to the file.
2. To have the uucpd daemon start automatically each time the inetd
daemon receives one UUCP request, remove the comment symbol (#) from
the following line in the /etc/inetd.conf file:
# uucp stream tcp nowait uucp /usr/sbin/uucpd uucpd
Restart the inetd daemon.
3. Be sure that the TCP/IP network between the local and remote systems
is working. Issue the ping command to test that the systems can
communicate with one another. Replace rhost1 with the name of the
appropriate remote host.
# ping rhost1
See the ping(8) reference page for more information.
4. Update the Systems, Devices, and Permissions files in the
/usr/lib/uucp directory to include the relevant TCP/IP entries, as
· To update the Systems file do, the following:
a. Select the appropriate TCP/IP conversation protocol to enter
in the TCP caller subfield. There are four kinds of
protocols: g, t, e, and f.
-- The g protocol, the default, provides error checking
and thus is useful over modem connections. However, it
creates a large overhead when running UUCP commands.
-- The t protocol presumes an error-free channel and thus
it is not reliable for use with modem connections. You
can use the t protocol to communicate with a site
running both Tru64 UNIX and Berkeley versions of UUCP.
-- Use the e protocol to communicate with sites running
both Tru64 UNIX UUCP and other versions of UUCP. The e
protocol is not reliable for modem connections.
-- Use the f protocol to communicate with sites running
versions of UUCP other than Tru64 UNIX. The f protocol
is not reliable for modem connectors.
b. Add the appropriate entries to the Systems file.
For example, to connect the local system to system host7
using the default g protocol, enter the following line in
the Systems file:
host7 Any TCP - - in:--in: uucp1 word: passuucp
c. Replace the send and expect characters in the example Login
field with the login prompt, login, password prompt, and
password that applies to the remote system to which you are
The following example shows how to specify that you are
using TCP/IP with the t protocol:
host7 Any TCP,t - - in:--in: uucp1 word: passuucp
· To update the Devices file, do the following:
a. Enter the following line in the Devices file:
TCP - - - TCP
b. Specify TCP in the Caller field. Enter dashes (-) in the
Line, Line2, and Class fields. Enter TCP as the Dialer. This
is done to ensure that outgoing calls over TCP/IP are
· To update the Permissions file, enter the appropriate LOGNAME and
MACHINE entries. See the Network Administration: Services manual
for information on editing the Permissions file.
Note that you must set up an appropriate login ID and password for any
remote system that initiates uucico and uuxqt activities.
uucico(8), uucp(1), uucp_intro(7), uucpd(8), uucpsetup(8)
Network Administration: Services
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